A 2012 mental health survey conducted in Canada (called the Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health or CCHS-MH) included a brief interview module designed to assess perceived stigma among those accessing mental health services. The module was called the Mental Health Experiences Scale, developed by Dr. Heather Stuart, at Queens University. The CCHS was a large survey, with a sample size of > 25,000 respondents. It employed a sophisticated sampling design to ensure representation of the national household population. However, the stigma scale was only administered to a subset (an estimated 8% of the population) who reported accessing mental health services in the preceding year. However, the questions in the scale asked about perceived stigma from any source, not just health professionals. About one in four of these respondents reported encountering stigma. The survey also included measures of mental health status, such as perceived mental health, a distress scale, self-reported diagnosis and a structured diagnostic interview. People with diagnoses were more likely to report stigmatization (irrespective of whether the diagnoses were from the diagnostic interview or from a health professional). Surprisingly, the frequency of perceived stigma was almost as high in people with mood and anxiety disorders as among people with Schizophrenia. Similar to previous studies, the perception of stigma was found to be lower in older respondents, over the age of 55. It is often assumed that stigma results from labelling, or that labelling is an essential component of the process of stigmatization. In this regard, an interesting finding was that people who reported receiving no diagnosis still often reported stigmatization, especially if they had symptoms suggestive of a diagnosable disorder (e.g. high distress, pronounced depressive symptoms). This suggests that stigma can occur directly as a result of manifestations of mental health difficulties, without the need for a diagnostic label. The paper is available here.